Keywords: EDM, Powder-mixed EDM, Dielectric Fluid 1. These are tightened with screws. The process carries on in this way. In simple terms this is the distance between the electrode and the workpiece’s machined surface after the sparking procedure. Because electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a destructive process, many of the pieces that are essential to the machining process degrade or are destroyed over time. Electron Beam Machining (EBM) is a thermal process considering the mechanisms of material removal. [6] Rapid Prototyping Techniques, Selective Laser Sintering, 3D Printing & FDM Prototype Mumbai n.d. (accessed April 30, 2017). The fluid not only cools down the vaporised material that would have been removed, but it also removes the chips from interfering with the material removal process through sparking. As seen in the above section, an electron beam is generated in an electron beam gun.  The electron beam is not to be exposed to air molecules as upon interaction, the electrons would lose energy, thus losing their cutting ability.  To combat this, the workpiece to be machined is placed under the electron beam and is kept under vacuum.  The usual cutting diameter of the high-energy density beam is in the tune of 10 – 100 μm [3].  As seen in the below figure, the kinetic energy from the electron beam is converted to heat energy upon hitting the work material, causing the material to instantly melt via the high-power density of the beam.  Once this is done, the molten material is then expelled from the work area via the high vapor pressure. It consists of a magnetic chuck that is clamped to the worktable and the workpiece is placed into this magnetic chuck. Composite: In EDM, copper tungsten is an example of a metallic composite. The K1C is a high speed small hole driller that machines difficult to cut carbide and heat treated workpieces. In the figure below, one can see the schematic of an Electron Beam Gun.  The basic concept of this gun is that it generates free electrons at the cathode, which are then accelerated to a high enough velocity only to be then focused over a small spot size.  The cathode is usually made out of tungsten or tantalum to generate and resist the high operating temperatures in the tune of 25000á´¼C in the gun [3].  To further aid the thermo-ionic electron emission of the cathode, a very low vacuum is maintained to prevent any collisions experienced by the electrons and the cartridge is negatively biased to repel the electrons faster. Being a disposable commodity, dielectric fluid is easily overlooked, its importance to EDM underestimated and cheap alternatives for it sought. Use of a barrier lotion or gloves will aid in the protection of skin. The fluid, an oil designed specifically for the process, not so much. High quality petroleum products such as EDM 3033 have virtually no odor and usually do not irritate the skin. Hydraulic fluid should also be prevented from contaminating the dielectric fluid. Furthermore, there are two cooling units. Sodick’s patented Vitol machining fluid allows EDMing at much faster speeds than small hole machines that use water as a dielectric fluid. Generally a synthetic fluid is better; longer life, better performance, and excellent operator acceptance. Water in dielectric fluid lowers its dielectric strength and in some cases can cause excessive arcing making it necessary to replace the fluid. Common applications of fuse deposition modelling comprise: rapid prototyping, manufacturing aids, jigs and fixtures, low volume production, and carbon fibre layup tooling [5]. The high performance fluid features a high flash point for safety and a low viscosity for effective flushing. In each layer, separate nozzles extrude and deposit material that create the parts and material that generate supports where required made out of a soluble material [4]. The file was then exported (using Export, CAD Format) as an STL file, as shown in figure 9. As was mentioned previously, the electrode must have the inverse shape to the shape that is required to be generated on the workpiece. Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Machining Technology Association; 2001. Faster cutting, higher quality finish, shorter burn time and longer fluid life while improving health and safety for the operator are among the main benefits. The savings of a couple hundred dollars isn’t worth the risk. Minimagics was used in order to check if the part had any defects as shown in figure 11. The particular model of machine being used in the lab is a Dimension 1200, which typically uses acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The Sodick AP3L comes equipped with a LP2 series power supply unit which can be programmed to give very high-precision machining at a fast rate. It will last up to 6 times longer than petroleum fluids and will pay for itself in the long run. It is also important to note that since the EBM process is not a mechanical process, but a thermal beam process, the EBM does not generate any cutting forces whilst machining.  This means that not only can a very simple work holding be enough, but also, fragile and brittle materials are machinable on the EBM. But it should. Sounds simple enough, but many shops use a cheap mineral oil in an effort to save money. The inside of this chuck has a lot of magnets that secure the workpiece and this can be controlled by a moving a lever. If the pressure becomes too low, the paper filter might become too clogged and this means it would need to be replaced [1]. Reference this. First, the part has to be small enough to fit in the dielectric fluid container. Three ingredients are key to successful sinker or ram electrical discharge machining (EDM) cutting—the machine, the electrode tooling, and the dielectric fluid. However high breakdown voltage is required for a highly viscous fluid. EDM 3033 has a clean and clear appearance with extremely low odor giving it excellent operator acceptance. The dynamic behavior of the dielectric fluid and fluid contaminants, and some of the effects of the dielectric fluid behavior on the electrical discharge machining process variables are described. Since material is removed through a sparking process, it is evident that the EDM process is a thermal process, where material is removed by the heat of the spark and the material becomes vaporised. Hence when designing the electrode, one must take this overcut into consideration and there must be a clearance due to this overcut. EDM 3033 dielectric is a premium, highly refined petroleum fluid suitable for roughing and finishing operations. Recycle Fluids The MRR also depends on the circulation of dielectric fluid because without forced dielectric circulation, the wear particles repeatedly melt and reunite with the electrode. Keep in mind that highly refined petroleum EDM fluids such as EDM 3033 perform almost as good as many synthetic EDM fluids on the market. 1108 Front Street Common Metals: The first group of metallic electrode materials. Rustlick EDM-500 Dielectric Fluid - Synthetic, 55 Gallon Drum Price: $1,399.00 Rustlick EDM-500 Dielectric Fluid - Synthetic is a premium synthetic dielectric fluid … The EBM system  can machine holes of diameters in the tune of 100 μm to 2 mm and a depth of approximately 15mm [3].  From the figure below, one can see a typical hole drilled by the EBM.  Using the EBM process, it is also possible to generate a taper or even a reverse taper to the hole.  These tapers can be generated by manipulating the focus of the electron beam.  Upon generating the hole, an edge rounding at the entry point as well as a recast layer are generated as seen in the below figure. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on Generally, because these fluids have a low viscosity they also have lower flash point – not for rough cutting with high amperage. There are five different choices of performance speed. The pack tab was then opened and the Add to Pack button was clicked on in order to set the part onto the floor of the printer, as shown in figure 14. The advantages of using an EDM include the fact that tolerances of about 0.005 can be attained, that complex and difficult shapes can be produced which could not be produced by conventional methods, and that since the electrode does not come into contact with the workpiece, no cutting forces are produced, and this means that very delicate parts can be machined using the EDM since no forces would affect them. This harms and underestimates the central role that dielectric fluid plays in the EDM process. In fact, making die cavities was such a common application for ram EDM in the early days that it was ofte… The EDM tool holders give a very precise location of the electrodes. When dielectric fluids are combined, a mixture of a wider distillation range is generally the result. An excellent choice for machinists looking to replace the now discontinued BP-180 brand EDM Oil. One of the functions of this dielectric fluid is that it cools both the electrode and the workpiece by removing the heat generated and keeping them both at a lower temperature, such that when touching them they would only be slightly warm. It is at this point that the sparking occurs and this is because the dielectric fluid will be conducting the electricity from the electrode to the workpiece. Just below the cathode, one can see an annular bias grid.  This grid is used to converge the electrons of the cathode into a beam.  This is achieved by introducing a negative bias to the said grid.  The newly generated beam is then gradually accelerated using the anode directly below the bias grid via the forces of attraction.  Since the biasing grid is used to generate the beam, many models tend to use the bias grid as a form of switch to generate a pulsing beam of electrons.  Having passed through the anode, the beams passed through a series of magnetic lenses and apertures to shape, converge and filter the beam to improve the quality of the beam.  Having done all of this, the electron beam soes through the final section of the electromagnetic lens and deflection coil which focus and manage the beam respectively, increasing the focus and improving the shape of the holes produced. CatalystEX software was opened and the file was dragged and dropped into it, as shown in figure 12. After that in 1930s, the machining of metals and diamond with electrical discharges has been done. Do not put hands in the dielectric fluid when it is not necessary. The electrode can have several different shapes and hence one can produce as many products as required in mass production.